How To Grow Torenia From Seeds
Stage 1 Germination Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day the crop is sown until cotyledon expansion.
- Expect radicle emergence in 4 – 6 days.
- Do not cover the seed.
- Light is necessary for germination.
- pH: 5.5 – 5.8 • EC: 0.5 – 0.75
- 75°F (22°C) until radicle emergence.
- Reduce to 65° – 68°F (18° – 20°C).
- Saturated (5) for days 0 – 6 or until radicle emergence.
- On day 7 reduce moisture to moist (3). Prolonged saturated media will reduce the number of transplantable seedlings.
- 100% until radicle emergence then reduce to 40 – 70%.
- Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots. Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at cotyledon expansion, needed for the root to reach the edge of the plug cell.
- pH: 5.5 – 5.8 • EC: 0.5 – 1.0
- Maximum 3000 foot candles Avoid direct sunlight.
- 65° – 68°F (18° – 20°C)
- Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2).
- Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Avoid drying plugs to wilting.
- 40 – 70%
- Provide horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration, allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.
- After cotyledon emergence, fertilize weekly at 50 – 75 ppm Nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer (14-2-14 or 14-4-14). A little phosphorus is beneficial for improved rooting and flowering.
- Increase rate to 75 – 100 ppm Nitrogen as seedlings mature Finish Bulking/Flower Initiation – Optimum conditions during the vegetative period, beginning at transplant, needed for the root to reach the edge of the container; AND to make the plant receptive to flower initiation.
- pH: 5.5 – 5.8 • EC: 1.0 – 1.5
- To avoid heat stress, provide a light shade during the summer months.
- Low light conditions may cause stretching of stems and delay flowering.
- Supplemental light may be beneficial during winter/early spring production.
- 60° – 65°F (16° – 18°C) nights; 65° – 70°F (18° – 21°C) days.
- Night temperatures below 60°F (16°C) may cause leaf curl and leaf discoloration ranging from yellow to red.
- Alternate between moisture levels wet (4) and medium (2). Allow media to approach level (2) before re-saturating to level (4). Humidity: 40 – 70%
USDA Hardiness Zone -First Frost Date- Last Frost Date
- Zone 1 -July 15th -June 15th
- Zone 2 -August 15th- May 15th
- Zone 3 -September 15th May 15th
- Zone 4 -September 15th May 15th
- Zone 5 -October 15th April 15th
- Zone 6 -October 15th April 15th
- Zone 7 -October 15th April 15th
- Zone 8 -November 15th March 15th
- Zone 9 -December 15th February 15th
- Zone 10 -December 15th January 31st (sometimes earlier)
- Zone 11 -No frost. No frost.
To be sure about pH, test the soil with a pH meter. Apply fertilizer and lime using the results of the soil test as a guide.
- Soil pH is a measurement of the number of Hydrogen ions present in the soil solution along with as the acidity of the soil.
When the soil pH is too acidic the nutrients that are present in the soil become locked-up or unavailable (low pH) or alkaline (high pH).
- Correcting the pH has the same effect as applying fertilizer as it unlocks plant nutrients already present.
- In the garden some garden plants thrive in acidic soils while others prefer an alkaline soil.
- The acidity or alkalinity of soil is a measurement by pH (potential
Hydrogen ions). pH is a way to measure the amount of lime (calcium) contained in your soil, and the type of soil that you have.
To Measure Soil pH
It is recommended that you use a relatively inexpensive, and follow the manufacturers instructions when testing the pH Level of your Gardens soil.
To raise or lower the pH level in the soil either Limestone or Sulfur is utilized.
Other materials will accomplish the same results; however the two that are listed are the most commonly used.
Limestone is added to the soil to raise the pH level because limestone is essentially calcium and calcium reacts with water in the soil to yield hydroxyl ions .. a process known as, hydrolysis = thus the pH level in the soil is raised.
Sulfur reacts with bacteria in the soil and produces sulfuric acid, which releases hydrogen ions thus causing the soil to become more acidic =the pH level is lowered.
Application Of Lime (To Raise Soil pH)
To increase your pH by 1.0 point and make your soil more alkaline.
- Add 4 ounces of hydrated lime per square yard in sandy soils
- Add 8 ounces of hydrated lime per square yard in loamy soils
- Add 12 ounces of hydrated lime per square yard in clay soils
- Add 25 ounces of hydrated lime per square yard in peaty soils
- The addition of ash, bone meal, or crushed oyster shells will also help to raise soil pH levels.
Application of Sulfur (To Lower Soil pH)
If your soil needs to be more acidic, sulfur will lower the pH if it is available.
To reduce the soil pH by 1.0 point
- Mix in 1.2 oz of ground rock sulfur per square yard if the soil is sandy
- Mix in 3.6 oz per square yard for all other soils.
- Composted leaves, wood chips, sawdust, leaf mold and peat moss, will also help to lower the soil pH.