Grow best in good well drained soil. Most species are grown fairly easily
from seeds, sown in spring or early summer. The typical bell- or saucer-shaped
flowers come in shades of blue to purple, lilac and white.
Flower Garden – Tips on Growing Campanula From Seeds
Germination Optimum conditions for seedling development that begins the day
Campanula Seeds are sown until cotyledon expansion.
USDA Hardiness Zone -First Frost Date- Last Frost Date
- Zone 1 -July 15th -June 15th
- Zone 2 -August 15th- May 15th
- Zone 3 -September 15th May 15th
- Zone 4 -September 15th May 15th
- Zone 5 -October 15th April 15th
- Zone 6 -October 15th April 15th
- Zone 7 -October 15th April 15th
- Zone 8 -November 15th March 15th
- Zone 9 -December 15th February 15th
- Zone 10 -December 15th January 31st (sometimes earlier)
- Zone 11 -No frost. No frost.
- Germination (Embryonic Root) will take place in 14-21 days at correct temperatures.
- Do not cover the seed at sowing as this will inhibit germination.
- Light: Light is necessary for germination. If utilizing a chamber, providing a light
source of 10 – 100 foot candles will improve germination and
- Transplant outdoors about 40 days (5 weeks) after you have sown the Campanula Seeds.Only transplant after any danger of frost has past.
- pH: 5.5 – 5.8
- EC: <0.5
- Temperature: 62° – 65°F (16° – 18°C).
- After several sets of true leaves have
developed, reduce to 58° – 60°F (14° – 16°C) nights, 65° – 70°F (18° – 2°C).
- Moisture: Wet (4) until radicle (Embryonic Root) emergence. On day 9, begin alternating
between moisture levels moist (3) and medium (2). Allow media to approach
level (2) before re-saturating to level (3).
- Humidity: 100% until radicle (Embryonic Root) emergence then reduce to 40 – 70%. Provide
horizontal airflow to aid in drying down the media through evapotranspiration,
allowing better penetration of oxygen to the roots.
Finish Flower InitiationOptimum conditions to make plant receptive to
- NOTE: Long day treatments begin when the leaves have reached the edges of
the container, otherwise the plant will be scarce on foliage. It takes about 5 – 6
weeks to fill out a 4 inch pot; and about 6 – 7 weeks to fill out a 5 – 6 inch pot.
- Daylength and Light: A day length of 14 – 16 hours is necessary to initiate
blooms. Long days can be created with either interrupted nights or extended
days. Long day treatments must continue throughout the remainder of the
production schedule to promote additional flowers. Regardless of container
size, it takes approximately 6 – 8 weeks from start of long day treatments
until first flower. Keep plants actively growing and avoid stress throughout
- Common Diseases: Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Botrytis
- Common Pests: Thrips, Spider Mites
- Use for Pots, containers, rock gardens
- Light: Partial shade to full sun
- USDA Hardiness Zone: 11
- Garden Height: 8 – 10 inches (20 – 25 cm)
- Garden Width: 6 – 8 inches (15 – 20 cm)
Terms and their meaning:
- EC=Electrical Conductivity
Plant injury resulting from excessive soluble salts may first occur as a mild chlorosis of the foliage, later progressing to a necrosis of leaf tips and margins. This type of injury is largely attributed to the mobility of soluble salts within the plant. As these salts are rapidly translocated throughout the plant, they accumulate at the leaf tips and margins. Once the salts reach a toxic level they cause the characteristic "burn" associated with excessive salts. For an accurate reading get an EC meter.
Soluble salts in irrigation water are measured in terms of electrical conductivity (EC). The higher the salt content the greater the EC. In general EC values exceeding 2.0 are considered toxic to plant growth. Monitor your water quality frequently in order to avoid potential problems from soluble salts.
- FC=Foot Candles
Light intensity is a primary factor in the photosynthesis of all plants. Full unobstructed sunlight has an intensity of about 10,000 fc. Where as an overcast day will produce an intensity of around 1,000 fc. A window sill or light around a window or patio glass door can range from 100 to 5,000 depending of course what direction the light source is facing, or the time of year and your latitude.
- PPM=Parts Per Million
This unit of measure is relatively unique to the greenhouse industry and often there is some confusion on how ppm is calculated.
I. To calculate the ppm contained in 1 ounce of material first solve for B:
A x 75 = B
A = the % active ingredient (AI) in the fertilizer
B = ppm contained in 1 ounce of the material in 100 gallons of water
Example: Calcium nitrate contains 15% N (0.15 x 75 = 11.25). If 1 ounce of calcium nitrate is dissolved in 100 gallons of water the solution will contain a II. To calculate the number of ounces of material required to make up a desired ppm concentration solve for C:
C = Desired ppm conc. / B
B = ppm contained in 1 ounce of the material in 100 gallons of water (from above).
C = number of ounces of material to add to 100 gallons of water to achieve the desired concentration.
Example: To make up a 250 ppm solution of calcium nitrate first multiply the AI x 75 (.15 x 75 = 11.25). Next divide the desired concentration by 11.25 (250/11.25 = 22). To make up a 250 ppm solution of calcium nitrate you would add 22 ounces to 100 gallons of water.
aproximately 11.25 ppm N.
To be sure about pH, test the soil with a pH meter. Apply fertilizer and lime using the results of the soil test as a guide.
- Soil pH is a measurement of the number of Hydrogen ions present in the soil solution along with as the acidity of the soil.
When the soil pH is too acidic the nutrients that are present in the soil become locked-up or unavailable (low pH) or alkaline (high pH).
- Correcting the pH has the same effect as applying fertilizer as it unlocks plant nutrients already present.
- In the garden some garden plants thrive in acidic soils while others prefer an alkaline soil.
- The acidity or alkalinity of soil is a measurement by pH (potential
Hydrogen ions). pH is a way to measure the amount of lime (calcium) contained in your soil, and the type of soil that you have.
To Measure Soil pH
It is recommended that you use a relatively inexpensive, and follow the manufacturers instructions when testing the pH Level of your Gardens soil.
To raise or lower the pH level in the soil either Limestone or Sulfur is utilized.
Other materials will accomplish the same results; however the two that are listed are the most commonly used.
Limestone is added to the soil to raise the pH level because limestone is essentially calcium and calcium reacts with water in the soil to yield hydroxyl ions .. a process known as, hydrolysis = thus the pH level in the soil is raised.
Sulfur reacts with bacteria in the soil and produces sulfuric acid, which releases hydrogen ions thus causing the soil to become more acidic =the pH level is lowered.
Application Of Lime (To Raise Soil pH)
To increase your pH by 1.0 point and make your soil more alkaline.
- Add 4 ounces of hydrated lime per square yard in sandy soils
- Add 8 ounces of hydrated lime per square yard in loamy soils
- Add 12 ounces of hydrated lime per square yard in clay soils
- Add 25 ounces of hydrated lime per square yard in peaty soils
- The addition of ash, bone meal, or crushed oyster shells will also help to raise soil pH levels.
Application of Sulfur (To Lower Soil pH)
If your soil needs to be more acidic, sulfur will lower the pH if it is available.
To reduce the soil pH by 1.0 point
- Mix in 1.2 oz of ground rock sulfur per square yard if the soil is sandy
- Mix in 3.6 oz per square yard for all other soils.
- Composted leaves, wood chips, sawdust, leaf mold and peat moss, will also help to lower the soil pH.